means, 'that which is revealed'; descripes certain forms of literature
popular in Christianity and Judaism from the second century B.C.E. to the
second century C.E.; often times written in a secret code and spoke about
a dramatic end of the world.
Asceticism: practice of self-denial
through various means for the attainment of spiritual and intellectual
Baptism: Christian initiatory
Catechsm: a popular
manual of Christian doctrine, usually in the form of question and answer,
intended for religious instruction.
Catholic: an adjective which
is used both to refer to the 'universality' of the church, and also to
refer to Roman Catholicism.
Christology: the section of
Christian theology dealing with the identity of Jesus Christ, specifically
the question of the relation of his human and divine natures.
Covenant: refers to an agreement;
in Christianity, the term 'new covenant' is used to refer to the relationship
established with all humanity by God through Jesus Christ. This 'new
covenant' is seen as the fulfillment of the 'old covenant' established
between God and the nation of Israel.
Deacon: literally means 'servant,'
'attendant,' or 'minister'; a functionary in Christian churches
Easter: the Christian celebration
of the resurrection of Christ.
Ecclesiology: the section
of Christian theology dealing with the theory of the church.
Ecumenical Movement: Action
among modern Christian groups to attempt to achieve unity across denominational,
cultural, and religious differences.
Eschatology: teachings about
the 'end times.'
Eucharist: literally means,
'thanksgiving'; Christian memorial meal of bread and wine that celebrates
the death and resurrection of Jesus.
a form of American Protestant Christianity wich lays especial emphasis
on the authority of the inerrant Bible.
Gnostic: Family of early Christian
heresies that were purported to contain the secrets of the universe.
Gospel: literally means, 'Good
News'; the message concerning Christ, the kingdom of God, and salvation.
Also used to refer to the first four books of the Christian New Testament
which tell the story of Jesus' earthly ministry.
Grace: refers to the free
gift of God's salvation through Jesus Christ.
Incarnation: a term used to
refer to the assumption of human nature by God, in the person of Jesus
Original Sin: the Christian
teaching that all humans are sinful at birth or are born with a tendency
Orthodoxy: a term used in
a number of senses, of which the following are the most important:
(1) Orthodoxy in the literal sense of 'right belief,' as opposed to heresy;
(2) Orthodoxy in the sense of the forms of Christianity wich are dominant
in the East.
Parable: short meaningful
story that was one of Jesus' primary teaching devices.
Penance: Christian sacrament
in which the Christian confesses sin and receives absolution.
Pentacost: Christian festival
that comes 50 days after the Passover and celebrates the coming of the
Holy Spirit to the church.
Pietism: a Christian
movement that emphasized personal and spiritual devotion over corporate
worship and assent to doctrine.
Pope: title for the Bishop
of Rome; leader of the Roman Catholic Church.
Protestantism: a term used
to refer to those who 'protested' against the practices and beliefs of
the Roman Catholic Church.
Reformed: a term used to refer
to a tradition of theology which draws its inspritation from teh writings
of John Calvin (1510-1564) and his successors.
Sacraments: the signs of God's
grace; rituals through which believers participate in the spiritual reality
to which they point. The Lord's Supper and baptism are the two sacraments
recognized by all Christians.
Sanctification: the process
through which a person is incorporated ever more fully into the spiritual
reality of Christ, or being made more like Christ.
Second Coming: the expected
return of Jesus Christ at the end of history to inaugurage the Kingdom
of God on earth.
Soteriology: the section of
Christian theology dealing with the doctrine of salvation.
Synoptic Gospels: New Testament
books of Matthew, Mark, and Luke; three gospels which share the same basic
outline and chronology.
Trinity: the disitinctively
Christian doctrine of God, which reflects the complexity of the Christian
experience of God. The doctrine is usually summarized in maxims such
as "three persons, one God."
Vatican II: Council called
by the Roman Catholic Church in 1962; it took broad steps to modernize
the Catholic Church and mend relationships with Jews, members of the Eastern
Orthodox Church, and Protestants.
Vulgate: Latin translation
of the Bible by St. Jerome